In the classroom, the scaffolding is provided by the teacher. In a participatory culture, the whole community takes some responsibility to help novices find their way (Henry Jenkins).
By Luis Fernando Gutierrez Cano and Jorge Luis Pacheco Orcasitas
With the influence of digital technologies, especially the Internet, contemporary society is immersed in a phase of constant and rapid changes in the ways of addressing the various stages of knowledge; in this regard, we note that mobile telecommunications networks develop around people and things, and application services to mobile devices such as Smartphones and Tablets definitively integrated, among others (Massarolo-Mesquita, 2013).
Therefore, the teaching-learning processes have not been oblivious to these changes and from several instances the role that these technologies can play in a context where communication flows discussion and information are avasallantes; teachers and students, two of the key players in the education sector, live daily with many tools and narrative structures that have gradually been moving pedagogical approaches and displacing traditional ways of addressing the learning theories.
And it is not unusual; for example, a video produced for a class of persons and used 15 one day after published in the network can reach circulated millions.
Changes in education are so significant that at different stages of the educational process already being conducted by questions about the application of what Jenkins termed as media convergence, participatory culture and collective intelligence.
It is understood by media convergence as the flow of content across multiple media platforms; participatory culture as participants interacting under a new set of rules that no one fully understood; and collective intelligence as an alternative source of media power. We are learning to use that power through our daily interactions within the culture of convergence (Jenkins, 2006)
Hence we see lately the transmedia narratives or transmedia strorytellings, looming, for some time, as one of the ways that they can be effective in mid contexts computer technology, information and communication, ICT, from which many theorists they have called connectivism, ie, the idea that the information is online for everyone, but the information is used in an individualized way (RENO, 2014).
There just matters of great concern, as it has to see the contents in educational processes within the ecology of communication arise.
For clarity, we capture the concepts of Professor Carlos Alberto Scolari, communication researcher, an expert in digital media, interfaces and ecology of communication and one of the main Latin American theorists on issues related to the transmedia communication.
Carlos Scolari is Professor in the Department of Communication at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona). He holds a PhD in Applied Linguistics and Communication Languages by the Università Cattolica di Milano. He has been coordinator of the Master of Interactive Digital Communication and Research Group d'Interaccions Digitals (GRID) at the University of VIC.
As teachers of communication, our concern is the application of transmedia concepts of communication in teaching and learning processes, not only from the point of social communication but also in other areas of knowledge. In a Latin American context, what kind of content they are likely to include in the curriculum for implementation in the areas of communication and students of these programs acquire skills in transmedia processes?
Carlos Scolari: The transmedia narratives (NT) should be approached from a double theoretical and practical perspective. On the one hand, these new forms of expanded story where users are involved in central phenomenon in contemporary media ecology; from a theoretical perspective, the NT interpellate disciplines as political economy of communication, anthropology and semiotics and narratology.
With this I am saying that the NT are a transdisciplinary object that can be worked on different theoretical and methodological subjects. On the other hand, the design and implementation of transmedia communication strategies, whether in the realm of fiction, journalism, documentary or corporate communications should be included as a workshop or integration space, especially at the end of the studies.
Communication in racing have writing workshops, design, photography, audiovisual or interactive production. Well, after all these specific workshops you should create a transmedia storytelling workshop where such knowledge is articulated around a single communication strategy. Would cherry on the cake, the finishing end gold process theoretical and practical training.
With regard to the above, what strategy can continue to provide that in these processes of teaching and learning, transmedia concepts can be mainstreamed across the curriculum and teachers and counselors can effectively apply theories and meanings of the trasmediático in their classes?
Carlos ScolariThe study and reflection on the NT, as I said, can be approached from different perspectives: as well as teachers of political economy can work aspects of user involvement (are accomplices of large corporations such as hold theorists "labor digital" - or generate spaces of rupture and cultural replica, as proposed by Henry Jenkins), in the chairs of semiotics or narrative can delve into the narrative structures, texts generated by fans or expansion strategies / narrative compression.
In a course devoted to the study of hearings; for example, you can analyze consumption beyond broadcasting, consumer transformation into a "prosumer" model or the crisis of traditional audience measurement.
Thanks to the evolution of ICT, applied to educational processes, have become some "classic" teaching methodologies; What strategies can be to link in a proper way these students in learning processes ?, transmedia is feasible to develop methodologies ludic processes by linking theoretical, narrative, practical and, why not play?
Carlos Scolari: If we consider the narrative transmedia as a pedagogical model, in this case the training should stop being so book-centric: A transmedia education should work with all kinds of languages and media, from comics to video games, to movies or the video clip. Moreover, we should move from the "student-generated content," "user-generated content."
Usually produce texts that students are lost once were evaluated: they are texts with high "planned obsolescence." We should design strategies to recover these texts within the teaching-learning. Why a student can not "re-work" a text made the previous year by another student? Universities are currently textual giant machines that generate products for the disappearance. We must recover even a portion of that textual mass.
Finally, rather than pointing to the "playful" -sometimes they insist that teachers "should be made more fun classes" ... - I prefer to bet on the concept of "experience". In other words, make each class or meeting with students in a collective learning experience, where all contribute and come up with something new.
With regard to research and teaching-learning, given the evolution of communication phenomena transmedia, what you think are the main phenomena from content production, but also from academics, must face today filmmakers , teachers, researchers and students?
Carlos Scolari: Most importantly, and this affects researchers, teachers, students and professionals, is to start "thinking about transmedia". If we position ourselves in the place of the researcher or teacher it is increasingly clear that we can not understand the ecosystem of communication if we analyze "radio", "TV" or "social networks". We need holistic, cross-cutting approaches that put in relation what is going on (tre) different media and communication actors.
On the other hand, both professionals and students, or is, future professionals- should "think of transmedia" for one simple reason: it is increasingly difficult to survive by producing content for a single medium. This happens to large corporations but also small businesses and individual professionals. The NT are consolidated as a strategy to tackle the fragmentation of audiences, and therefore are a good alternative to counter this fragmentation and generate a viable business model.
Finally, where do transmedia communication processes, what are the limits of the concept and what the future of it would be, considering that the advancement of technologies continues with an enthralling rhythm today going?
Carlos Scolari: The NT born in fiction and already are expressing increasingly in the field of journalism or documentary. Advertising and brands, meanwhile, always had a transmedia spirit that today should be extended to cover the production of users.
I am sure that with the transmedia will be the same as with "multimedia" of the years 1990: at a certain time every production will transmedia. It will be assumed that any project or strategy will communication through various media with the collaboration of users. Sometime, in a few years, the concept will disappear because all communication to a greater or lesser extent, will be transmedia.
active participation of young people
Clearly, the transmedia or NT contents must also used to encourage a critical reading of the media; Similarly, as the pose Jenkins (2006), "that this new narratives also be useful to encourage the active participation of young people as citizens"; and propender not limited to consume by eating, but also involved in the production, selection and distribution of media message; in short, the academic system must assess irrefutably, the benefits that the processes of media convergence may provide in students, whatever the level of education through stimulus sufficiently robust, so that paritr of them a collaborative construction of knowledge and be confident also that in the new media ecosystem, forms of participatory culture emerging, allied to content platforms, connect users and things to the world of stories (Massarolo-Mesquita, 2013).