Managing the organizational knowledge necessary for the sustainability of companies is one of the main challenges that arise in organizations in the international arena.
Boris Díaz *
This issue has been addressed by authors such as North and Kumta (2014), who highlight the relationship between the value of employees' intrinsic knowledge and the importance of properly managing it. In the audiovisual industry, when a collaborator has been in the organization for a long time, the accumulation of knowledge and experiences resulting from their work will be difficult to recover in a new worker, thus having a high level of training.
On the other hand it is common to find that many organizations in the sector make large technological investments and discover that they are not being fully exploited due to the lack of knowledge transfer to the direct operators of this technology.
This situation highlights the permanent threat that exists in the industry, at a time when everything revolves around the administration of information with initiatives such as Big Data and Business Intelligence, in which it is evident that it is not just about counting with information, but to find a way to take advantage of it and, above all, to guarantee how to transform it into knowledge and protect it for the use and benefit of the organization.
For this, it is necessary to review the relationship between economic and productivity results in companies and the management of intangibles; where many companies despite having quality processes, are affected by this phenomenon that afflicts organizations that compete in changing areas, where knowledge, access to information and new technologies are essential.
Betancur (2015), argues that the assets of intellectual capital can be immersed in the conscious or unconscious of employees tacitly (that resides in them) or implicit (documented within the organization), even represented in customs or regulations. Today, knowledge management is so valued in corporate environments that concepts such as intangible assets have been regulated in the framework of international accounting standards such as the NICs and IFRS, which define the conditions under which intangibles must be valued. economically as assets, estimating their fair value in cases where the law so requires, as Pombo (2015) affirms.
Taking into account the elements used in the definitions, the following conceptual approach is proposed:
Knowledge Management: Process through which the management of knowledge flows is facilitated and that which comes from the different sources of knowledge, internal and external to the organization, is transformed in order to configure the knowledge potential of the same .
Intellectual Capital: It is the total existence of resources based on the knowledge that the company has.
Know-how: It is the experience that a person or organization has to develop their activities, be they productive, administrative, financial, commercial and / or control.
Referents such as Nonaka and Takeuchi (1999), address how knowledge focused on administrative theories in order to increase productivity in companies, leaving rigorous definitions to involve more innovative concepts, which seek to convert tacit knowledge into explicit, and its to relate it to a level of individual, group, organizational and inter-organizational knowledge. They propose one of the most popular models that would even serve as a bridge between Eastern and Western cultures known as the Knowledge Spiral consisting of four stages (Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization) as seen in the figure Spiral of Knowledge.
Tiwana (2002), on the other hand, presents a model that theoretically allows to design a unique knowledge management system for the different Organizations, divided into four stages: infrastructure evaluation, GC analysis system, design and development, System of launching and finally the return on investment and performance evaluation, as shown below:
1 table. Roadmap of knowledge management in 10 steps
The above are references of models and administrative theories that serve together with others, as a basis for the application of an own model that adjusts to the particular needs of each organization in the audiovisual industry. The great challenge is to find a way to integrate the positions of knowledge management and intellectual capital, in a way that adapts to the particular conditions of each organization and protects the existing knowledge in them, in the people who make them up and who today they are your main asset.
From this objective arise fundamental questions applicable individually for each organization, such as:
Are there clear policies to carry out sensitive processes of the organization, such as Pre-production, Production, Post-production, Emission / Distribution, Content management and Archive?
How much does it affect the organization that knowledge is lost with the retirement of employees?
What are the main problems caused by the "flight" of knowledge in the organization?
What methods can be used so that the experience and know-how of employees is maintained as an intangible asset of the company?
What are the knowledge and experiences that could be considered as intellectual capital in the company?
In whose head are these knowledge and experiences? Is it part of the company's explicit knowledge?
Where and how have you documented this knowledge?
In the audiovisual industry, it is observed that knowledge plays a special role since one of its most important differentiating factors is the accelerated advance of technology. The very existence of organizations and their sustainability over time, depend on the ability of the company to absorb technology and to implement it in the improvement of its processes to maintain its participation in the market and in this way, guarantee a sustainable competitive advantage in the time.
The audiovisual market is highly dynamic, a few years ago the dominant media were indisputably radio, the press and television; Today, strategies are clearly found around concepts such as Transmedia, Crossmedia and Industrias 4.0, which account for the evolution of the industry. Market dynamics respond to different circumstances and different actors that are part of it.
Changes in the needs of customers and consumers, emerging technologies, the dynamic capabilities of the competition and industry, determine the speed with which the company can stay out of the market. Not understanding this dynamic and the importance of the knowledge inserted in it, simply guarantees the obsolescence of knowledge, technology and the service offered by the company to its target audience. This guarantees its exit from the market.
Keeping the company in competition means understanding the dynamics of change and being part of it. For this, the human, structural and relational dimensions of Intellectual Capital are fundamental, since it allows contact between the agents of the system and the processes of the company. Likewise, it allows the transformation of information into knowledge, and from it into intelligence, facilitates the process of feedback (feedback) permanent and necessary to ensure the continuous improvement that the company requires in a dynamic market, as suggested by Chávez (2017).
In short, it is about understanding that technical expert knowledge is as important as commercial and administrative expert knowledge to ensure the continuous improvement of processes, the insertion of technology and the permanent generation of value for customers and consumers, in a to improve the image (branding), taking into account the relationship with society (social responsibility) and the environment (environmental responsibility).
In this sense, the model to be implemented in an audiovisual industry organization must integrate in a permanent spiral the necessary elements to facilitate the work of the organization, managing its individual, collective and organizational knowledge to guarantee its economic, social and environmental sustainability ( also legal), in time.
* Boris Díaz is an Electronic Engineer, Specialist in Technological Management and Master in Management of Technological Innovation. With 25 years in the television and audiovisual media industry, she has played various technical, administrative and now commercial roles since Era Electrónica, where she currently serves as Commercial Director.